The loss of over 10 million head of livestock along with the loss of other crops would reduce agricultural production by more than. Toyota and Unilever pakistan said that the floods would sap growth, necessitating production cuts as people coped with the destruction. Parvez ghias, the chief executive of pakistan's largest automotor manufacturer toyota, described the economy's state as "fragile". Nationwide car sales were predicted to fall as much as 25, forcing automakers to reduce production in October2010 from the prior level of 200 cars per day. Milk supplies fell by 15, which caused the retail price of milk to increase by pk rs 4 (5 us cents) per litre. Relief efforts edit us navy 100827-M-3497D-145 a pakistani military personnel and civilian offer fruit juice and cookies to us marines during humanitarian relief efforts in Khyber- pakhtunkhwa Province, pakistan by the end of July 2010, pakistan had appealed to international donors for help in responding. 89 At that time the us embassy in pakistan had provided seven helicopters. 90 The United Nations launched its relief efforts 29 and appealed for US460 million (420 million) to provide immediate help, including food, shelter and clean water.
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69 A self-proclaimed Taliban spokesperson based in Orakzai told The Express Tribune : "We have not issued any such threat; and we don't have any plans to attack relief workers." 70 nevertheless, three american Christians were reported killed by the taliban on 25 August. 71 Political effects edit The floods' aftermath was thought likely contribute to public perception of inefficiency essay and to political unrest. These political effects of the floods were compared with that of the 1970 Bhola cyclone. The scepticism within the country extended to outside donors. Less than 20 of the pledged aid was scheduled to go through the government, according to Prime minister yousuf raza gilani, with the remainder flowing through non-governmental organisations. The government's response was complicated by insurgencies (in Balochistan and waziristan growing urban sectarian discord, increasing suicide bombings against core institutions and relations with India. 79 Economic effects edit On 7 September 2010, the International Labour Organization reported that the floods had cost more than.3 million jobs, stating that "productive and labour intensive job creation programmes are urgently needed to lift millions of people out of poverty that has. Forecasts estimated that the gdp growth rate of 4 prior to the floods would turn to 2 to 5 followed by several additional years of below-trend growth. As a result, pakistan was unlikely to meet the International Monetary fund 's target budget deficit cap.1 of gdp, and the existing 55 billion of external debt was set to grow. 83 Crop losses were expected to impact textile manufacturing, pakistan's largest export sector.
63 64 Helping flood victims gave the us an opportunity to improve its image. 65 pakistani taliban also engaged in relief efforts, making inroads where the government was absent or seen as corrupt. 66 As the flood dislodged many property markers, it was feared that essay governmental delay and corruption would give the taliban the opportunity to settle these disputes swiftly. 66 In August a taliban spokesperson asked the pakistani government to reject Western help from "Christians and Jews" and claimed that the taliban could raise 20 million to replace that aid. 66 67 According to a us official, the ttp issued a threat saying that it would launch attacks against foreigners participating in flood relief operations. 68 In response, the United Nations said it was reviewing security arrangements for its workers. The world health Organization stated that work in the Khyber pakhtunkhwa province was already suffering because of security concerns.
59 Infrastructure edit Floods damaged an estimated 2,433 miles (3,916 km) of highway and 3,508 miles (5,646 km) of railway essay and repairs are expected to cost at least 158 million usd and 131 million usd, respectively. 12 Public building damage is estimated at 1 billion usd. 12 Aid donors estimate that 5,000 schools were destroyed. 60 Climate-resilient model villages edit following the resume 2010 floods, the punjab government subsequently constructed 22 'disaster-resilient' model villages, comprising 1885 single-storey homes, together with schools and health centres. The Climate development Knowledge network was engaged to advise on how to make the new infrastructure resilient to extreme weather events occurring in the future. The idea was that the villages should provide 'triple wins' of limiting greenhouse gas emissions, promoting development and building resilience to climatic events. Now inhabited, the model villages incorporate biogas plants, solar energy systems, livestock sheds, covered sewerage, brick-paved streets, parks, play areas, markets and community centres. 61 Taliban insurgency edit It was reported that the flood would divert pakistani military forces from fighting the pakistani taliban insurgents (TTP) in the northwest to help in the relief effort, 62 giving Taliban fighters a reprieve to regroup.
54 The agricultural damage reached more than.9 billion dollars, and included over 700,000 acres (2,800 km2) of lost cotton crops, 200,000 acres (810 km2) of sugar cane and 200,000 acres (810 km2) of rice, in addition to the loss of over 500,000 tonnes of stocked wheat, 300,000. 55 56 Agricultural crops such as cotton, rice, and sugarcane and to some extent mangoes were badly affected in Punjab, according to a harvest Tradings-pakistan spokesman. He called for the international community to fully participate in the rehabilitation process, as well as for the revival of agricultural crops in order to get better gdp growth in the future. In affected Multan division in south Punjab, some people were seen to be engaging in price-gouging in this disaster, raising prices up to Rs 130/kg. Some called for Zarai taraqiati bank limited to write off all agricultural loans in the affected areas in Punjab, sindh and Khyber pukhtunkhwa especially for small farmers. 57 On 24 September, the world food Programme announced that about 70 of pakistan's population, mostly in rural areas, did not have adequate access to proper nutrition. 58 Already resurgent in the federally Administered Tribal Areas and Khyber-pakhtunkhwa province, agricultural devastation brought on by the floods left pakistan more susceptible to an increase in poppy cultivation, given the crop's resiliency and relatively few inputs.
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44 Black death essay diseases (e.g. Gastroenteritis, diarrhoea, and skin diseases ) due to lack of clean drinking water and sanitation pose a serious new risk to flood victims. 45 46 On 14 August, the first documented case of cholera emerged in the town of Mingora, striking fear into millions of stranded flood victims, who were already suffering from gastroenteritis and diarrhoea. Pakistan also faced a malaria outbreak. 50 The International Red Cross reported that unexploded ordnance, such as mines and artillery shells, had been flushed downstream by the floods from areas in Kashmir and waziristan and scattered in low-lying areas, posing a future risk to returning inhabitants. 51 The United Nations estimated review that 800,000 people were cut off by floods in pakistan and were only reachable by air.
It also stated that at least 40 more helicopters are needed to ferry lifesaving aid to increasingly desperate people. Many of those cut off are in the mountainous northwest, where roads and bridges have been swept away. 52 by order of President Asif Ali zardari, there were no official celebrations of pakistan's 63rd Independence day on 14 August, due to the calamity. 53 Potential long-term effects edit a bridge damaged by the flooding Flood edit Floods submerged 17 million acres (69,000 km2) of pakistan's most fertile crop land, killed 200,000 livestock and washed away massive amounts of grain. A major concern was that farmers would be unable to meet the fall deadline for planting new seeds in 2010, which implied a loss of food production in 2011, and potential long term food shortages.
In addition to all the other damage the floods caused, floodwater destroyed much of the health care infrastructure in the worst-affected areas, leaving inhabitants especially vulnerable to water-borne disease. 36 In Sindh, the Indus river burst its banks near sukkur on 8 August, submerging the village of Mor Khan Jatoi. 34 Law and order disappeared, mainly in Sindh. Looters took advantage of the floods by ransacking abandoned homes using boats. 37 Affected areas as of In early august, the heaviest flooding moved southward along the Indus river from severely affected northern regions toward western Punjab, where at least 1,400,000 acres (570,000 ha) of cropland were destroyed, 34 and toward the southern province of Sindh.
38 The affected crops included cotton, sugarcane, rice, pulses, tobacco and animal fodder. Floodwaters and rain destroyed 700,000 acres (3,000 km2) of cotton, 200,000 acres (800 km2) acres each of rice and cane, 500,000 tonnes of wheat and 300,000 acres (1,000 km2) of animal fodder. 39 40 According to the pakistan Cotton Ginners Association, the floods destroyed 2 million bales of cotton, which increased futures prices.,000 citizens (or 70 of the population) of the historic Sindh town of Thatta fled advancing flood waters on 27 August. 43 by mid-September the floods generally had begun to recede, although in some areas, such as Sindh, new floods were reported; the majority of the displaced persons had not been able to return home. 1 heavy rainfalls recorded during the wet spell of July 2010 edit heavy rainfalls of more than 200 millimetres (7.9 in) were recorded during the four-day wet spell from 27 to in the provinces of Khyber pakhtunkhwa and Punjab based on data from the pakistan Meteorological. 27 * Indicates new record. The power infrastructure of pakistan also took a severe blow from the floods, which damaged about 10,000 transmission lines and transformers, feeders and power houses in different flood-hit areas. Flood water inundated Jinnah Hydro power. The damage caused a power shortfall.135 gigawatts.
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28 On 30 July, 500,000 or more people had been displaced from their homes. 25 On 30 July, manuel Bessler, head of the un office for the coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, stated that 36 districts were involved, and 950,000 people were affected, 29 although within a day, reports increased that number to as high as a million, 30 and. 31 by mid-August, according to the governmental Federal Flood Commission (ffc the floods had caused the deaths of at least 1,540 people, while 2,088 people had received injuries, 557,226 houses had been destroyed, and over 6 million people had been displaced. 24 One month later, the tally had risen to 1,781 deaths, 2,966 people with resume injuries, and more than.89 million homes destroyed. 1 The Khyber pakhtunkhwa provincial minister of information, mian Iftikhar Hussain, said "the driver infrastructure of this province was already destroyed by terrorism. Whatever was left was finished off by these floods." 32 he also called the floods "the worst calamity in our history." 33 four million pakistanis were left with food shortages. 34 The karakoram Highway, which connects pakistan with China, was closed after a bridge was destroyed. 35 The ongoing devastating floods in pakistan will have a severe impact on an already vulnerable population, according to the International Committee of the red Cross (icrc).
23 us army helicopter flies over a flood-affected area. In response to previous Indus river floods in 19, pakistan created the federal bestseller Flood Commission (FFC) in 1977. The ffc operates under pakistan's Ministry of Water and Power. It is charged with executing flood control projects and protecting lives and property of pakistanis from the impact of floods. Since its inception the ffc has received.8 billion (about 900 million usd). Ffc documents show that numerous projects were initiated, funded and completed, but reports indicate that little work has actually been done due to ineffective leadership and corruption. 24 Flooding and impact edit Floods edit satellite images of the upper Indus river valley, comparing water-levels on (top) and (bottom) Monsoon rains were forecast to continue into early august and were described as the worst in this area in the last 80 years. 25 The pakistan Meteorological Department reported that over 200 millimetres (7.9 in) of rain fell over a 24-hour period in Khyber pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. 26 A record-breaking 274 millimetres (10.8 in) rain fell in Peshawar during 24 hours; 27 the previous record was 187 millimetres (7.4 in) of rain in April 2009.
August 2010 16 and monitored the flood wave progression. 17 Discharge levels were comparable to those of the floods of 1988, 1995, and 1997. 18 The monsoon rainfall of 2010 over the whole country was the highest since 1994 and the second highest during last 50 years. 19 A research by Utah State University 20 analyzed conditional instability, moisture flux, and circulation features and the results support a persistent increase in conditional instability during the july premonsoon phase, accompanied by increased frequency of heavy rainfall events. The increased convective activity during the premonsoon phase agrees with the projected increase in the intensity of heavy rainfall events over northern pakistan. Large-scale circulation analysis reveals an upper-level cyclonic anomaly over and to the west of pakistan 21 a feature empirically associated with weak monsoon. The analysis also suggests that the anomalous circulation in 2010 is not sporadic but rather is part of a long-term trend that defies the typical linkage of strong monsoons with an anomalous anticyclone in the upper troposphere. An article in the new Scientist 22 attributed the cause of the exceptional rainfall to "freezing" of the jet stream, a phenomenon that reportedly also caused unprecedented heat waves and wildfires in Russia as well as the 2007 United Kingdom floods.
World health Organization reported that ten million people were forced to drink unsafe water. 10, the, pakistani economy was harmed by extensive damage to infrastructure and crops. 11, damage to structures was estimated to exceed US4 billion disadvantages (2.5 billion and wheat crop damages were estimated to be over US500 million (425 million). 12, total economic impact may have been as much as US43 billion (35 billion). 3 4, swat river washed off bridge in Upper Swat valley. Contents, the floods were driven by rain. 13, the rainfall anomaly map published by nasa showed unusually intense monsoon rains attributed.
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Swat river soaring view in 2010 flood. The floods in pakistan began in late july 2010, resulting from heavy monsoon rains in the, khyber pakhtunkhwa, sindh, punjab and, balochistan regions of, pakistan, which affected the, indus river basin. Approximately one-fifth of pakistan's total land area was affected by floods, with the Khyber pakhtunkhwa province facing the brunt of the damage and casualties (above 90 of the deaths occurred in that Province). 5 6. According to, pakistani government data, task the floods directly affected about 20 million people, mostly by destruction of property, livelihood and infrastructure, with a death toll of close to 2,000. 1, un secretary-general, ban ki-moon had initially asked for US460 million (420 million) for emergency relief, noting that the flood was the worst disaster he had ever seen. Only 20 of the relief funds requested had been received on 9, the. Had been concerned that aid was not arriving fast enough, and the.